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The town of Scarlino is dominated by the medieval fortress…From the archaeological excavations carried out between 1979 and 1983, it emerged that the area was inhabited since the late Bronze Age (XII – X centuries B.C.) but as far as the fortress is concerned, the first mention of the "curtis" of Scarlino dates back to 973 when the possession was of the Aldobrandeschi. Between the 11th and 12th centuries the settlement underwent a notable improvement in construction and a document from 1277, the year in which the castle was ceded by the Counts Alberti to the municipality of Pisa, contains indications of various buildings.
With the Pisani the fortress was restructured and enlarged, also the township underwent notable transformations and many buildings were destroyed to be totally rebuilt. In 1399 Scarlino passed to the Appianos who carried out a new restructuring of the fortress with the construction of the second wall.Today you can admire the impressive ruins of the building, consisting of three corner towers of different shapes joined by various curtain walls. The Rocca is well preserved while the walls surrounding the medieval town are only partially preserved. The structure of the Rocca has a pentagonal shape and is formed by two curtain walls, at the corners there are three large towers, one of which is circular.