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Palazzo Hercolani, or Ercolani, is a large Rococo or Neoclassical palace in Strada Maggiore in the historical centre of Bologna, which houses the School of Political Science of the University of Bologna.
The palace as it currently stands was commissioned in 1785 by the aristocrat Filippo Hercolani; the architect was Angelo Venturoli. While the façade has neoclassical remains, the staircase and decorations inside are evidence of the style of late Baroque and Rococo ornaments. On the first floor there is a room frescoed probably by Filippo Pedrini showing scenes dedicated to Fame and human genius and showing Imero, Pindaro, Hesiod and Democritus. Two rooms are decorated in chinoiserie style by Davide Zanotti. Other rooms contain decorations and paintings by Giovanni Battista Frulli, Luigi Busatti, Antonio Basoli, Gaetano Caponeri, Minozzi Flaminio, Vincenzo Martinelli, and other artists.
Of particular value are two rooms on the ground floor, the neoclassical Sala dello Zodiaco, with frescoes probably by Basoli, and the Giardino d’Inverno (also known as the "Boschereccia" room) the "wood" painted by Rodolfo Fantuzzi. Both overlook the garden of the palace, which in its moment of splendour contained a "magnificent and large garden, partly French and partly English, adorned with small mountains".